Glossary

Term Definition
Farm milking area ha The area grazed by milkers over the year. Allows the calculation of tonnes of dry matter consumed per hectare. If you want to consider the total area under management to work out pasture consumption across your whole operation, inputs will need to change slightly. Include additional leased areas or area grazed by dry stock.
Terrain Description of the topography of the land that cows walk on.
Total milk production per year Total number of litres of milk produced by the herd during the year.  Includes any milk used for calf rearing.
Total kg fat per year Total milk fat produced by the herd over the 12 month period.  Derived from farm production/delivery data plus an estimate of milk fed to calves.
Total kg protein per year Total milk protein produced by the herd over the 12 month period.  Derived from farm production/delivery data plus an estimate made for milk fed to calves.
Average milk lactose % The average percentage of milk lactose component in each litre of milk. Concentrations vary between dairy breeds.
Actual annual rainfall Rainfall (millimetres, mm) the farm received over the 12 month period.
Total annual irrigation water applied to milking area Total amount of irrigation water applied (megalitres, ML) to the farm milking area during the 12 month period.
Days on farm milking area Average number of days in the year that each class of stock spends on the farm milking area.
Milking herd - heifers Number of first calvers (heifers) in the milking herd
Milking herd: 2+ lactations Number of cows in the milking herd that have had more than one lactation.
Calving percentage The percentage of cows within the milking herd that calve within the 12 month period.
Calves: 3-6 months Calves aged between 3-6 months that graze the farm milking area.  Note, there is unlikely to be any grazing by calves prior to weaning.
Calves: 6-12 months Calves aged between 6-12 months that graze the farm milking area.
Yearlings 13-24 months Number of young stock aged between 13-24 months that graze the farm milking area
Dry heifers Number of first calvers (heifers) in the dry period before their second calf.
Dry milkers Number of mature milkers on the farm milking area during their dry period.
Carried over dry stock (2-3 years old) Number of dry stock aged between 2-3 years that were not milked.
Carried over dry stock (3+ years) Number of dry stock aged 3 years and over that were not milked.
Bulls Number of bulls on the farm milking area.
Average BCS for 3 year olds The body condition score of an average mature cow in the herd over the 12 month period.
Average age of mature herd The average age of the mature milking herd.
Average distance walked by milkers The average distance the milking herd walks to and from the dairy each day during lactation.
Liveweight: Birth Average liveweight (kilograms, kg) of calves at birth.
Liveweight: Calves: 3 months Average liveweight (kilograms, kg) of calves at 3 month old.
Liveweight: Calves: 6 months Average liveweight (kilograms, kg) of calves at 6 month old.
Liveweight: Joining heifers Average liveweight (kilograms, kg) of heifers at the point of joining.
Liveweight: Calving heifers Average liveweight (kilograms, kg) of heifers at the point of calving.
Liveweight: Calving 2+ lactations Average liveweight (kilograms, kg) of mature cows at point of calving.
Liveweight: Bulls Average liveweight (kilograms, kg) of bulls.
Starting condition score Average condition score of the milking herd at the start of lactation.
Lowest condition score The lowest average condition score the herd drops to over the lactation.
Final condition score The average condition score of the milking herd at drying off.
fresh weight (tonnes) The weight of feed as fed to the herd. Fresh weight includes water and dry matter
% DM Percentage dry matter. The weight of the dry matter in feed excluding water, expressed as a percentage. For example, the fresh weight of silage fed may be 500 tonnes but the dry matter percentage may be 45%.  Water would make up 55%.
MJ ME/kg DM Megajoules (MJ) metabolisable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. Metabolisable energy is the amount of energy available to the animal after energy lost from faeces, urine and methane is accounted for. Megajoules is the unit measure of energy.
Energy of feed Energy content of feed. This is expressed as megajoules (MJ) metabolisable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. Metabolisable energy is the amount of energy available to the animal after energy lost from faeces, urine and methane is accounted for. Megajoules is the unit measure of energy.
% wastage Percentage wastage.  The percentage of feed offered to the herd that is not eaten and therefore wasted.
Home grown hay Hay grown on the farm milking area and fed out within the 12 month period.
Home grown silage Silage grown on the farm milking area and fed out within the 12 month period.
Concentrate Concentrate feeds have a high density of nutrients and are often low in fibre. Most cereal grains and pellets are considered concentrates.
Brought in hay Hay purchased and fed out within the 12 month period. If you produced hay on another part of the farm but fed it out on the milking area, include it here.
Brought in silage Silage purchased and fed out within the 12 month period. If you produced silage on another part of the farm but fed it out on the milking area, include it here.
Brought in other Feeds other than hay, silage and concentrates that have been purchased or grown outside the farm milking area.
Hay grown and not fed (fresh weight) The fresh weight of hay grown on the farm milking area but not fed back to the herd in the 12 month period.
Hay grown and not fed (%DM) The weight of the dry matter in hay (expressed as a percentage) that is grown on the farm milking area but not fed back to the herd in the 12 month period.
Silage grown and not fed (fresh weight) The fresh weight of silage grown on the farm milking area but not fed back to the herd in the 12 month period.
Silage grown and not fed (%DM) The weight of the dry matter in silage (expressed as a percentage) that is grown on the farm milking area but not fed back to the herd in the 12 month period.
Negative associative effects When two or more feeds are fed, the digestibility and therefore the ME of the total diet may be less than the sum of the individual components. Values entered here represent the reduction in estimated ME of pasture and conserved forage supplements when concentrates are fed.
Average pasture ME (MJ/kg DM) An estimate of the average metabolisable energy concentration of pasture consumed by stock over the 12 month period.
Energy requirements during lactation The metabolisable energy requirements (MJ) for heifers and mature milkers during the lactation period.
Energy requirements of milking herd  The metabolisable energy requirements (MJ) for heifers and mature milkers while on the farm milking area during the 12 month period.
Energy requirements of young and dry stock  The metabolisable energy requirements (MJ) for calves and yearlings while on the farm milking area during the 12 month period.
Total metabolisable energy balance Summary of the metabolisable energy balance for each livestock class while on the farm milking area over the 12 month period.
Energy requirements while on farm milking area (MJ ME) Metabolisable energy requirements calculated for each livestock class while on the farm milking area over the 12 month period.
Energy provided by brought in feed (MJ ME) Metabolisable energy consumed by each livestock class from purchased feed and feed brought in from outside the farm milking area.  Includes wastage and associative effects.
Energy provided by home grown hay/silage (MJ ME) Metabolisable energy provided by home grown hay/silage and consumed by each livestock class.
Balance of energy assumed provided by grazed pasture (MJ ME) Energy requirements while on the farm milking area less Energy provided by purchased/brought in feed less Energy provided by home grown hay/silage = Metabolisable energy assumed to be provided by grazed pasture.
Net quantity of grazed pasture to provide balance (t DM) Balance of energy assumed provided by grazed pasture divided by Pasture average ME = Amount of pasture required to balance animal requirements for energy.   Incorporates negative associative effects.
Annual feed intake per animal (t DM/animal/year) Summary of annual feed intake for each class of livestock in the 12 month period.   Note purchased feed includes feed brought in and fed from outside the farm milking area.
Annual Pasture Removal (t DM/ha) Estimated amount of pasture removed for the farm milking area.  Expressed as tonnes of dry matter across the farm milking area and per hectare.
Net quantity of grazed pasture (t DM) Total amount of grazed pasture eaten by all livestock on the farm milking area over the 12 month period.
Quantity hay and silage conserved and fed out during 12 month period (t DM). Total amount of home grown silage and hay conserved on the farm milking area and fed out to livestock during the 12 month period.
Total t DM consumed from the farm milking area. The total amount of dry matter consumed from the farm milking area over the 12 month period (grazed pasture plus conserved hay and silage).
Pasture consumed per year (t DM/ha/yr) The total amount of dry matter consumed from the farm milking area over 12 months, divided by the farm milking area.
Pasture consumed but not fed out (t DM) The amount of dry matter conserved on the farm milking area within the 12 month period which has not been fed out.
Home grown feed Includes directly grazed pasture and pasture conserved as hay and/ or silage that is grown on the farm milking area.
Pasture Fresh, directly grazed ryegrass dominant pasture. For the basic (or ‘ask the calculator’ version), an industry average of 11 MJ ME/kg DM has been used.
Hay Conserved feed which has industry averages of 87% dry matter content, and 8.5 MJ ME/kg DM
Silage Conserved feed (ensiled) which has industry averages of 43% dry matter content and 9.5 MJ ME/kg DM.
Total pasture removed (t DM/ha/yr) The sum of total pasture consumed plus pasture conserved but not fed out over the 12 month period.
Total pasture removed (t DM/ha/100 ml) The sum of total pasture consumed plus pasture conserved but not fed out over the 12 month period, expressed per 100 mm of rainfall plus irrigation.